T1 LOW CONCENTRATION AQUEOUS NANOFLUID ADDITIVE
SOLUTION FOR BOTH SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY
It is believed that the metal oxides in combination with the blended carrier scavenge water from the fuel system, utilising the oxygen component to increase combustion efficiency. Metal oxide based additives have been reported to be effective in reducing diesel emissions in two ways: 1) the metals react with water vapour in the exhaust emissions to produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, and 2) the metal oxides serve as an oxidation catalyst and thereby lower the oxidation temperature for diesel soot and lead to increased particle burn out.
Previous studies have shown that the addition of nanoparticles to water may substantially improve the thermal conductivity and mass transfer inside the fluid, even at low concentrations. This enhancement effect is dependent on temperature, and thus provides enhanced thermal transport and heat sink capabilities for fuels as well.
Water can react with metal oxide nanoparticles during combustion to generate hydrogen, and hence, increase the nanofluid combustion heat. Hydrogen burns in a diesel engine in the presence of an active aqueous nanofluid.
A study indicated that the micro-explosion phenomenon of the nano-sized water droplets in the emulsion fuel can accelerate fuel evaporation, and its mixing process with air, thus reducing the overall combustion duration.
The metal oxide nanoparticles present in a fuel additive can have high catalytic activity because of their large contact surface area per unit volume and can react with water at high temperature to generate hydrogen and improve fuel combustion.
T1 FORMULA IS ADDED TO FUEL WITH A RATIO OF 1000:1
TOTAL METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES FROM T1 IN THE MIXED FUEL WOULD BE LESS THAN 0.001PPM
T1 Formula has tiny bit of nanoparticles stably suspended in water, and it give rise to exciting new properties and phenomena.
Those nanoparticles are diluted to 1000:1 when T1 is mixed with Fuel. This means that the vehicle safety and the environmental issues due to metal nanoparticle would not be the case for T1.
Through an insight on research publications, we have noticed that the performance enhancement cannot be achieved with every amount of nanoparticle addition. Selecting optimal range of nanoparticle addition as well as the base fluid preparation is the key to the miraculous performance of T1.
Please note that T1 does not contain any hydrocarbon.
PRINCIPLE OF T1 FUEL ADDITIVE
Aqueous Nanofluid Combustion Catalyser
ELECTROKINETIC EFFECT OF WATER CLUSTER
How is it possible to alter the fuel performance with such a little dosage of nanoparticles?
T1 is inspired by lightning phenomenon. It is all about the catalytic effect of static electricity. A single bolt of lightning contains 5 billion joules of energy, enough to power a household for a month. On the earth 14 billion times of lightning flash in a year. The energy of a thunderstorm equals that of an atom bomb.
We believe that a certain condition with metal nanoparticles can charge water droplets, creating "nanoparticle - water" cluster, which can show catalytic effect of fuel combustion. In this case, an electrical double-layer forms when a particle is placed in the dispersing medium. The interior layer is the surface charge of the nanoparticle, and the outer layer is the diffuse layer of water envelop. The nanoparticle work as the seed of the cluster, therefore we need only a minor quantity, while charged water does as the main job of catalysis.
Due to the coulomb repulsion, the charged cluster does not agglomerate and stay as fine mist form and mixes with air uniformly in the combustion chamber. The electrostatic binding within the cluster prevents water from entrapping the fuel, therefore air/fuel ratio stays the same.
REDUCED TEMPERATURE & ENHANCED UNIFORMITY
As the temperature and pressure of the combustion chamber increases, explosive breaking of the cluster prior to the main explosion will spread the ionised water and metal oxide nanoparticles in the chamber uniformly. This explosive migration and collision will enhance the uniformity of air-fuel mixture in the chamber. Therefore combustion is catalysed.
The presence of the metal oxide nanoparticles inside the combustion chamber augments the heat transfer to fuel and shortens the ignition delay through an acceleration of the burning process.
In this process, the heat is absorbed by the water or the cluster for evaporation. Therefore the combustion temperature would be lower, while the mechanical movement in the combustion is not reduces. Through this effect, NOx can be reduced.
In this cluster breaking process, some water molecule can create hydrogen, which helps with clean burning.
The metal oxide nanoparticles act as an oxygen donor, and provide oxygen for the oxidation of CO, or absorb oxygen for the reduction of NOx. This oxygen storage capability can be combined with hydrocarbon fuels and reduce soot formation.
Further, ions in T1 remove particle precursors. The ions inhibit the nucleation of particle precursors showing detergent effect.